Women’s pay slips show an average of 18.3% or CHF 1455 per month less than those of men. 56% of this gap can be explained by objective factors such as professional status, years of service or qualifications. 44% cannot be explained by objective factors and are potentially discriminatory against women.
|Average pay gap||Explained share||Unexplained share||Unexplained pay gap based on the arithmetic mean|
(1'455 Fr. per month)
(642 Fr. per month)
(1'532 Fr. per month)
(657 Fr. per month)
(1'498 Fr. per month)
(522 Fr. per month)
The explained pay gap can be ascribed to ʹendowment effectsʹ or to structural differences between male and female professional careers: Women earn less than men do because they are under-represented in more demanding and senior jobs, because on average they are still less well-qualified and because they are more likely than men to work in low-paid sectors.
The unexplained pay gap cannot be ascribed to endowment effects and is potentially discriminatory against women. According to an estimate of the Federal Statistical Office (FSO), this potential discrimination meant that women suffered a total loss of earnings of CHF 7.7 billion in 2010.
Private and public sectors
Across the private sector the average gender pay gap is 19.6% (CHF 1532). 43% of this gap cannot be explained by objective factors. This amounts to CHF 657 per month (8.1%).
The pay gap in the public sector (Confederation, cantons and communes) is 16.7% (CHF 1498). 35% of this cannot be explained by objective factors, resulting in a monthly loss of earnings for women of CHF 522 per month (5.9%).
Great differences exist between the individual sectors. Differences are also found between regions.
Pay gap already exists at labour market entry
Gender pay gaps can already be detected at the start of men's and women's professional careers. Not only is starting pay in typically male jobs approximately CHF 200 higher per month than in typically female jobs but the unexplained pay gap under the same conditions (class of degree, field of work and socio-demographic factors, etc.) is already around 7% or CHF 280 per month on entering the labour market.
Female managers also affected
Pay inequality and discrimination also affect women in well-paid jobs. Generally, the higher the professional status and level of skills required, the higher the pay and the smaller the proportion of women will be – contributing to an even larger gender pay gap. Among the possible reasons for this is the glass-ceiling phenomenon, where women reach a certain point in the hierarchy beyond which they cannot progress or only with great difficulty. Another reason is the sticky floor phenomenon, which means that having entered the labour market, women have to contend with waiting longer for promotions and pay increases. They also have to wait longer to take advantage of continuing education opportunities that may open the way to promotion and a rise in pay.
Mothers disadvantaged, fathers rewarded
On average, married women earn 24% less than married men. After the birth of a child they often no longer work or only part-time. Various studies have shown that women suffer a loss of earnings as soon as they become mothers. In contrast, most men receive a pay increase once they become fathers.
Pay gap slow to narrow
The average pay gap between men and women is becoming narrower. But the unexplained gap has been stagnant at around 40% of the total pay gap for some years.